Category: Technology



Hmm! Hello, guys today I come with a new programming language that changes the way of the smart transactions of digital currencies which is solidity designed by Mr. Gavin Wood with his team.

 According to Wikipedia, Solidity is an object-oriented programming language for writing smartcontracts. It is used for implementing smart contracts on various blockchain platforms, most notably, Ethereum. 

Please note that I will later tell you about the meaning of these two words smart contracts but right let’s continue.

Solidity is a contract-oriented, high-level programming language for implementing smart contracts. Solidity is highly influenced by C++, Python, and JavaScript and has been designed to target the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) which is used for Ethereum platform.

It was developed by

  • Gavin Wood
  • Christian Reitwiessner
  • Alex Beregszaszi
  • Liana Husikyan
  • Yoichi Hirai

and several former Ethereum core contributors.

Where Ethereum is a decentralized platform similar to bitcoin and both use the likely similar technology i.e blockchain for decentralized data transaction.

The Ethereum Virtual Machine, also known as EVM, is the runtime environment for smart contracts in Ethereum. The Ethereum Virtual Machine focuses on providing security and executing untrusted code by computers all over the world.

The EVM specialized in preventing Denial-of-service attacks and ensures that programs do not have access to each other’s state, ensuring communication can be established without any potential interference.

The Ethereum Virtual Machine has been designed to serve as a runtime environment for smart contracts based on Ethereum.

After this long read question is still same  “What is Smart Contract?”

What is Smart Contract?

A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to digitally facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. Smart contracts allow the performance of credible transactions without third parties. These transactions are trackable and irreversible. 

The concept of smart contracts was first proposed by Nick Szabo in 1994. Szabo is a legal scholar and cryptographer known for laying the groundwork for digital currency. It is fine if you do not understand Smart Contract right now, we will go into more detail later.

The language uses a virtual development environment which is called Ethereum Virtual Machine or (EVM) Machine which provides a developing and runs time environment. 

After gaining knowledge about the solidity I would love to share some of the characteristics of this amazing programming language. 


  • Statistically Typed
  • Supports inheritance, libraries and complex user define types

Now we know a little bit about solidity and see its characteristics but where should we start learning this amazing programming language? Well I advise you to start with Edureka’s article written by Shashank 
Here is the link:-
If you  are not aware of the blockchain I advise you to check out article first  “BLOCKCHAIN INTRODUCTION” author Paul
Again Thanks to read my article.

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Soft Skills

Today don’t want to write any article regarding to tech let’s try to be different today and talk about the non tech essential skills (Hard skills and Soft skills). In this article I am just discuss A soft skill is a personal attribute that supports situational awareness and enhances an individual’s ability to get a job done. Soft skills, often called people skills or emotional intelligence, refer to the ability to interact in peaceable manner.

Soft skills are personal attributes that can affect relationships, communication, and interaction with others. Soft skills can include, or relate to, the following:

  • Negotiating
  • Customer service
  • Networking
  • Presentation
  • Conflict resolution
  • Communication effectiveness
  • Teamwork
  • Problem-solving
  • Working under pressure

Soft Skills Need Work

Soft skills aren’t generally “all or none.” Many people are suffiencent  or even exemplary with some skills yet  struggle with others. For instance, you may have excellent communication and teamwork abilities but struggle with time management or crack under pressure. 

It’s not uncommon to either underestimate the importance of soft skills or overestimate your own proficiency. Here are a few common scenarios that may be improved with stronger soft skills:

  • You are frequently  late for meeting or struggle to meet deadline
  • You have a low client retention rate compared to others in your field
  • You are frequently late for meetings or struggle to meet deadlines
  • You fail to grow your professional network, or avoid networking opportunities altogether
  • You manage to land meetings with prospective clients, but rarely proceed to the next stage or close deals
  • You have a low client retention rate compared to others in your field 

How to improve?

A first thing we should do is recognize and acknowledge the areas in which you need to improve. This can take place through personal reflection and self analysis, an evaluation of your work performance, or through feedback from trusted colleagues or may be friends. You may find that daily journaling regarding your professional interactions and their outcomes is helpful self-evaluation.

After gaining your strength and weakness certain plan of action for improvement that aligns with and supports your work plan need to be done.

There are a number of ways to develop or enhance these skills like:

  1.  Working with a mentor who can provide feedback and model appropriate skills. 
  2. If your focus is on improving communication, courses in subjects like public speaking or joining a group such as toastmasters can be helpful.

Soft skills that should have in every one 

There  are certain skills that are as necessary now as they have always been. So-called “soft skills,” such as comprehensive listening, holding meaningful dialogues and having difficult conversations, can be learned, but are often not taught. 

  1. Empathy:-  Empathy, an  important soft skill that  anyone needs when starting his/her carrier. Without empathy, you won’t understand where someone is coming from. Empathy helps us read people and situations, adapt accordingly, build trust and connect more effectively with others.
  2. Ability to influence others:-Another important soft skill anyone needs when entering the workforce One of the biggest surprises newcomers face is matrix work environments. Getting things done usually requires working through others to achieve results. The ability to influence peers to provide deliverables even without direct authority is a learned skill. Mastery is essential.
  3. Teamwork:- However, it’s hard to get a group of individuals to work together smoothly. Don’t you agree? A leader that can’t work with a team, is a failure and defiantly will fall. The reasons of  importance of teamwork  are as follow:- 
    1. Teamwork motivates unity in the workplace:- A teamwork environment promotes an atmosphere that fosters friendship and loyalty. These motivate employees in parallel and align them to work harder, cooperate and be supportive of one another.
    2. Teamwork offers differing perspectives and feedback:- While working on a project, it is good to listen different different perspective. 
    3. Teamwork provides improved efficiency and productivity:- 
  4. Adaptability & Flexibility:- Adaptability is the nature of changing or create modifications in oneself to suit to the new environment. It is important to have adaptability skill to  adapt to new environment as said by Mr. Joel Garfinkle, “The speed of change in any given workplace is so rapid”, The company environment is continuously changing itself as the technology changes  and so we should continuously improving ourselves, be adaptable with new things such as tech or non technical things. An adaptable person is someone who can carry out multiple tasks, manage multiple assignments by setting priorities and making changes to attitude to merge with the new culture. Where as flexibility at the workplace allows one to evaluate what is happening and adjust to the role and responsibilities or even the job being offered.
  5. Problem solving:-  Another most essential skill that person should have. A problem is any unpleasant situation which prevents people from achieving what they want to achieve. Any activity to eliminate a problem is termed problem solving. Problem solving skills refers to our ability to solve problems in an effective and timely manner without any impediments. Obviously, every organization has problems and every individual has problems too. For this reason, the ability to solve problems is of great importance to individuals and organizations. Some of the benefits include:
    1. Make the impossible possible:- Yep It is true, solving different different problems not only brain exercise  but also gives us a mechanism for identifying these things, figuring out why they are broken and determining a course of action to fix them. It also improve our performance and opens the gate of new opportunity  
    2. Makes you a stand out:-People hardly can solve the problem what they do’t understand because mostly are trained in only particular sector. if you become a regular problem solver at your workplace, you are easily noticed new problem, recognized it, solve it, and appreciated from others.
    3. Increased confidence:- No matter where you work or what your profession is, having the ability to solve problems will boost your confidence level.


  • One of the most important and difficult skill
  • And the most common reason of not hiring, not promoting, and poor performance of any.
  • It is important to all employ to adhere soft skill to obtain managerial position 

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Brave browser

Hey everyone, In here I am going to talk regarding to my favourite browser which is brave.

Brave is  gaining an attraction among  desktop and mobile users . It  is a free and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software currently based on the Chromium web browser and uses Blink rendering engine and the V8 JavaScript engine.

Brave is a more-or-less standard browser that lets users navigate to websites, run web apps and display or play online content. Like other browsers, it is free to download and use, remembers site authentication information and can block online ads from appearing on sites.

But What makes brave browser so unique? 

What makes Brave Browser different ?

What sets Brave apart is its aggressive anti-ad attitude. The browser was built to remove online ads from websites and its maker’s business model relies not only on ad blocking, but on replacing the scratched-out ads with advertisements from its own network.

Brave also eliminates all ad trackers, the often-tiny page components advertisers and site publishers deploy to identify users so that they know what other sites those users visit or have visited. 

Trackers are used by ad networks to show products similar to ones purchased, or just considered, leading to the meme of persistently seeing the same ad no matter where one navigates. Brave also eliminates all ad trackers, the often-tiny page components advertisers and site publishers deploy to identify users so that they know what other sites those users visit or have visited. Trackers are used by ad networks to show products similar to ones purchased, or just considered, leading to the meme of persistently seeing the same ad no matter where one navigates.


  • Brave was founded on May 28, 2015, by CEO Brendan Eich and CTO Brian Bondy. 
  • On January 20, 2016, Brave Software launched the first version of Brave with an ad blocking feature, and announced plans for a privacy ad feature and a revenue sharing program.

Key Points 

  • Brave boasts of two things: Its speed and the privacy it provides users.
  • On the desktop, Brave loads pages twice as fast as Chrome and Firefox, the No. 1 and No. 3 browsers in the world as ranked by analytics vendor Net Applications.  Link:-
  • The company has also sworn that it does not, and will not, store any user data on its servers. 
  • Source code:-
  • Initially written in C, JAVASCRIPT and C++
  • Website :-

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Today I am excited for writing an another interesting topic which is cryptography. I know it sounds like this topic is only for professionals who have a lot of experience & not for beginner but you what when I faced it I thought too but it is not so hard to understand.

Now you know that we are going to talk about cryptography but before that let me introduce myself. My name is Manshu Sharma, loves coding  , marketing  and data modelling, also loves to explore more other tech  things and loves share my knowledge.

So start with a basic question 

What is Cryptography ?

According to books, Cryptography is the science and arts of transforming data to make them secure and immune to attack. Cryptography concern itself with the following objectives.

  1. Confidentiality :- Protect the information from any authorised person.
  2. Integrity :- There should no modification.
  3. Non reputation :- Sender/Receiver cannot deny of transmitted data.
  4. Authentication:- Ensure communication is authentic.
  5. Data availability :-  Data must be available to authorised parties.

Now we know what is cryptography but question arises how it is work? 


In cryptography there are two major operations are performed which are 

  1. Encryption :- Encryption is a process which transforms the original information into an unrecognizable form. This new form of the message is entirely different from the original message. That’s why a hacker is not able to read the data as senders use an encryption algorithm. Encryption is usually done using key algorithms.

  2. Decryption :-  Decryption is a process of converting encoded/encrypted data in a form that is readable and understood by a human or a computer. This method is performed by un-encrypting the text manually or by using keys used to encrypt the original data.

New terms

  1. Cipher text:-  Cipher-text is encrypted text. Plaintext is what you have before encryption, and cipher-text is the encrypted result.

  2. Cryptanalysis:- A technique used for decrypting a message without any knowledge of the encryption detail. “Mainly hacker does this kind of analysis”

Flow Diagram


In standard cryptography there are two standard cryptography’s keys  which are used for performing encryption and decryption.

  • Symmetric Key 
    1. Also known as secret key
    2. Sender and receiver uses same key for encryption and decryption i.e the key is shared in both parties.

Note Symmetric cipher is less secure and ease to break  than Asymmetric cipher. 

  • Asymmetric Key :-
    1. Also known as public key cryptography
    2. Sender and receiver uses different key for encryption and decryption namely public key and private key respectively.

Standard key Algorithms

Below are different-different types of standard  cryptography technique use for encryption and decryption.

  1. Symmetric Algorithm :- Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption where only one key (a secret key) is used to both encrypt and decrypt electronic information. The entities communicating via symmetric encryption must exchange the key so that it can be used in the decryption process. 
  2. Asymmetric Algorithm :- Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public key cryptography, uses public and private keys to encrypt and decrypt data. The keys are simply large numbers that have been paired together but are not identical (asymmetric). One key in the pair can be shared with everyone; it is called the public key. The other key in the pair is kept secret; it is called the private key. Either of the keys can be used to encrypt a message; the opposite key from the one used to encrypt the message is used for decryption.

Hash Function

There is another important type of cryptography technique which is called hash function.
Before start about hash function first understand what is hash in cryptography. A hash is a method of cryptography that converts any form of data into a unique string of text. Any data can be hash no matter its sized, character used and type. 
Note :- A unique piece of data will always produce the same hash.

A cryptographic hash function is an algorithm that can be run on data such as an individual file or a password to produce a value called a checksum. In other words a type of security mechanism that produces a hash value, message digest or checksum value for a specific data object.

Difference between hash and encryption 

Process using hash functions on data to map it to a fixed size numerical outputProcess of encoding message or information in such a way that it can be access by authorised parties.
Converts the data to hash or message digest which generated from plain text.Use an encryption algorithm and key to convert the message to transmit into an unrecognisable format
Does not use any keysUses keys
Objective is to use of verifying dataPurpose of data to transmit data securely 
Output cannot be reversed back to original data Encrypted message can be transformed into original message by using decryption algorithm with appropriate key
Used for sending passwords, files and for searchingUsed to transmit sensitive business information.

The main use of a cryptographic hash function is to verify the authenticity of a piece of data. Two files can be assumed to be identical only if the checksums generated from each file, using the same cryptographic hash function, are identical.

Further Symmetric Classification

Symmetric can be  further classified in two different categories which are stream cipher and block cipher   [based on methodology]

Stream Cipher :- A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce cipher text) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time. In other words, In a stream cipher the plaintext is encrypted one bit at a time. This method is not much used in modern cryptography. The main alternative method is the block cipher in which a key and algorithm are applied to blocks of data rather than individual bits in a stream.

You can know more about stream cipher in the given link:-

Block Cipher :- In a block cipher, the plaintext is broken into blocks of a set length and the bits in each block are encrypted together.  A few of the most popular block ciphers are DES/3DES, AES, Blowfish, and Two fish.

You can know more about stream cipher in the given link:-

Source :-

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Today I don’t have any work to do in my office and I am just sitting in my chair with a cup of tea in front a PC  with my lappy but Before I start talking about bitcoin, I would like to mention that it is one of my favourite  topic in technology and content I am writing this article with consideration of Mr. Satoshi Nakamoto’s original paper.       

Link :-
So  what is bitcoin ?


Bitcoin, often described as a cryptocurrency, a virtual currency or a digital currency – is a type of money that is completely virtual. It’s like an online version of cash. You can use it to buy products and services, but not many shops accept. Bitcoin is a new currency that was created in 2009 by an unknown person using the alias Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are made with no middle men – meaning, no banks! Bitcoin can be used to book hotels on Expedia, shop for furniture on Overstock and buy Xbox games. But much of the hype is about getting rich by trading it. The price of bitcoin skyrocketed into the thousands in 2017. 

Bitcoin nowadays is not only a cryptocurrency or a digital payment system. Actually thanks to its unique features bitcoin has become a real instrument for investment, saving and even earning more money. Bitcoin is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digital money. It is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen. From a user perspective, Bitcoin is pretty much like cash for the Internet.

Well How bitcoin actually work ?

From a user perspective, Bitcoin is nothing more than a mobile app or computer program that provides a personal Bitcoin wallet and enables a user to send and receive bitcoins. 

Behind the scenes, the Bitcoin network is sharing a massive public ledger called the “block chain”. This ledger contains every transaction ever processed which enables a user’s computer to verify the validity of each transaction. The authenticity of each transaction is protected by digital signatures corresponding to the sending addresses therefore allowing all users to have full control over sending bitcoins.


Developer Mr. Satoshi Nakamoto who define electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. The solution he propose begins with a timestamp server. A timestamp server works by taking a hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash, such as in a newspaper or Usenet post [2-5]. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time, obviously, in order to get into the hash. Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain, with each additional timestamp reinforcing the ones before it. 

Source :- Satoshi Nakamoto’s original paper 

New transaction broadcasts do not necessarily need to reach all nodes. As long as they reach many nodes, they will get into a block before long. Block broadcasts are also tolerant of dropped messages. If a node does not receive a block, it will request it when it receives the next block and realizes it missed one. 


By convention, the first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block. This adds an incentive for nodes to support the network, and provides a way to initially distribute coins into circulation, since there is no central authority to issue them. The steady addition of a constant of amount of new coins is analogous to gold miners expending resources to add gold to circulation. In our case, it is CPU time and electricity that is expended. 
The incentive can also be funded with transaction fees. If the output value of a transaction is less than its input value, the difference is a transaction fee that is added to the incentive value of the block containing the transaction. Once a predetermined number of coins have entered circulation, the incentive can transition entirely to transaction fees and be completely inflation free. 


The traditional banking model achieves a level of privacy by limiting access to information to the parties involved and the trusted third party. The necessity to announce all transactions publicly precludes this method, but privacy can still be maintained by breaking the flow of information in another place: by keeping public keys anonymous. The public can see that someone is sending an amount to someone else, but without information linking the transaction to anyone. This is similar to the level of information released by stock exchanges, where the time and size of individual trades, the “tape”, is made public, but without telling who the parties were.

See an example diagram below:-

Source:- Satoshi Nakamoto’s original paper 


  1. October 31, 2008: Bitcoin whitepaper published.
  2. January 3, 2009: The Genesis Block is mined.
  3. January 12, 2009: The first Bitcoin transaction.
  4. December 16, 2009: Version 0.2 is released.
  5. November 6, 2010: Market cap exceeds $1 million USD.
  6. October 2011: Bitcoin forks for the first time to create Litecoin.
  7. June 3, 2012: Block 181919 created with 1322 transactions. It is the largest block to-date.
  8. June 2012: Coinbase launches.
  9. September 27, 2012: Bitcoin Foundation is formed.
  10. February 7, 2014: Mt. Gox hack.
  11. June 2015: BitLicense gets established. This is one of the most significant cryptocurrency regulations.
  12. August 1, 2017: Bitcoin forks again to form Bitcoin Cash.
  13. August 23, 2017: SegWit gets activated.
  14. September 2017: China bans BTC trading.
  15. December 2017: First bitcoin futures contracts were launched by CBOE Global Markets (CBOE) and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).
  16. September 2018: Cryptocurrencies collapsed 80% from their peak in January 2018, making the 2018 cryptocurrency crash worse than the Dot-com bubble’s 78% collapse.
  17. November 15, 2018: Bitcoin’s market cap fell below $100 billion for the first time since October 2017.
  18. October 31, 2019: 11th anniversary of Bitcoin.


  • Irreversible :-After confirmation, a transaction can‘t be reversed. 
  • Secure :-Bitcoin funds are locked in a public key cryptography system. 
  • Pseudonymous :-Neither transactions or accounts are connected to real-world identities.
  • Fast and global :-Transaction is propagated nearly instantly in the network and are confirmed in a couple of minutes.


In the end we see about bitcoin like what it is?, How it is beneficial for us?, Privacy policy regarding users and some key high light.

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