Is India ready for Industry 4.0 ?

Industrialisation started with steam and the first machines that mechanised some of the work that our people did. Subsequently we had electricity, the assembly lines and the birth of mass production and then the third era of industry came in with the advent of computers and the beginning of automation when robots and machines began replacing workforce on those assembly lines.  

Now we are expected to enter a new world of Industry 4.0, in which computers and automation will come together in an altogether a new way, with robotics connected remotely to computer systems equipped with machine learning algorithms that can control the robotics with minimum human support. During the past decades industry 3.0 make a huge leap forward. During this period the civilization changes and revolution comes in computerisation and automation  but now we talks about industry 4.0 where people considering it as a combination of artificial intelligence, machine learning and IOT and put together to ultimately make machines capable of making decisions with minimal human intervention. Industry 4.0 is the subset of the fourth industrial revolution. Although the terms “industry 4.0” and “fourth industrial revolution” are often used interchangeably, “industry 4.0” refers to the concept of factories in which machines are augmented with wireless connectivity and sensors, connected to a system that can visualise the entire production line and make decisions on its own. But here the big question arises Is India ready for industry 4.0 ? According to International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics 2016- published by UNIDO with its ranking going up by three places, India has now been ranked sixth among the world’s 10 largest manufacturing countries.  Idea is to encourage multi-national, as well as national companies to manufacture their products in India. With a plethora of crippling regulations and under-developed infrastructure, the Government is focusing more on enabling policies and improving infrastructure for certain key sectors. 

According to IBEF, the Government of India has set an ambitious target of increasing the contribution of manufacturing output to 25 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 2025, from 16 percent currently. IoT, being one of the most important aspects of Industry 4.0 for India, is expected to capture close to 20 percent share in global IoT market
in the next five years. According to IBEF forecast, the IoT market in India is projected to grow at a CAGR of more than 28 percent during 2015-2020.  Government of India has taken initiatives such as ‘Make in India’ . 

Major Indian states are taking initiatives to adapt to Industry 4.0 like  Andhra Pradesh has taken an initiative to capitalise on the IoT potential in the country. The state government has approved the first-of-its-kind IoT policy with an aim to turn the state into an IoT hub by 2020 and tap close to 10 per cent market share in the country.  The Indian government has created Green Energy Corridors to bring in more renewable energies, to make smart grids that will support the variable input of renewable energies and create storage. India has committed over 1 billion dollar  in this initiative and has started projects in many states, such as Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Himachal Pradesh. 

India’s first smart factory, moving from automation to autonomy, where machines speak with each other, is being set up in Bengaluru. It is making progress at the Indian Institute of Science’s (IISc) Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM) with an investment from The Boeing Company. A smart factory, armed with data exchange in manufacturing and the Internet of Things (IoT) is the future and experts are calling it revolution Industry 4.0. Reports peg the smart factory industry to touch US$ 215 billion  by 2025 and all major economies are likely to accept it. 

Various Indian companies are increasing their focus and partnering with other companies for developing new IoT and M2M solutions, the Digital India initiative from the Government of India is expected to enhance the focus on IoT in tackling the domestic challenges.

Several enterprises taking this responsibility seriously and understand the importance of upcoming tech trends as some few of the example of enterprises are Bajaj Auto was one of the first automotive enterprises to initiate automation in the industry. It commenced the process of automation in 2010, today it uses 100-120 Collaborative Robots in its production facilities. Maruti Suzuki manages 7 process shops and 5 assembly lines by around 1,700 robots. Ford has managed to operate the assembly lines and body shop of its Sanand Plant by 437 robots. Hyundai has also taken steps to minimise its labour cost by utilising over 400 robots in Sriperumbudur Plant. The production lines of Tata Nano consist of over 100 robots in the Sanand Plant of Tata Motors. Other enterprises such as Renault are doing some rather interesting work in the field of automation of business process to prevent the accidents. [Source :- Internet] 

As a result, companies are warming up to the idea of connected machines. While Industry 3.0 simply was about the automation of isolated machines, Industry 4.0 concentrates on the end-to-end digitisation of all physical assets and their integration into digital ecosystems with value chain partners”. Essentially, the new paradigm is about the integration is evidenced by 2016 Annual Meeting of World Economic Forum, held at Davos where “Fourth Industrial Revolution” was the key topic. 

Challenges

India’s competitive landscape is continuously changing. Countries are constantly being challenged on technical capabilities Specifically, India faces competition from China and Europe and there is a risk of her being crowded out by the increasing technical capabilities of these regions as they are focusing on medium- value segment where India has always been prominently operating. 

For more than 20 years now, India and China have been competing for the major share of global manufacturing. India’s manufacturing contribution to GDP still is a mere 16% compared to 36% for China. There is, however, an opportunity to turn the tide in India’s favour as China’s shrinking labour arbitrage and strengthening Yuan against the US Dollar has encouraged investors to look towards more cost-effective destinations like Vietnam, Indonesia and India. India’s advantage is its ample supply of skilled technical labour and low cost of manufacturing. Already Havells, Godrej, Bosch and other large manufacturers have shifted units to India. 

India’s Strength over others 

  1. Presence of large pool of skilled and semi skilled people with a strong educational system.
  2. Favourable government policies like lower excise duties, automotive mission plans, the constitution of NEMMP (National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020), FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid land Electric Vehicle) are advantageous for the  sector .
  3. India ranks third in terms of preferred investment destination. (Just after China and the United States) India has emerged as one of the most attractive destination not only for investment but also for doing business in the recent years. 
  4. Lower cost of production due to lower labour rates
  5. Existing Natural resources 
  6. English as one of the major business languages
  7. India’s location, close to markets of South East Asia, Middle East and also Europe.

Well here I just mentioned  few and most appropriate advantages but there are more than this like Improving Infrastructure, Robust Financial Sector & Large Workforce etc.

Conclusion

It is obvious that Indian enterprises have to understand the importance of industry 4.0 sooner rather than later and on behalf of doing great work by our government since 2014 and may continuously progress in this way than  we can say that “yes that India is ready for adapting industry 4.0 ecosystem”

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Augmented Reality

In a world where every year a new technology comes up. Augmented reality is one of the growing technology in 2019. It is the technology which proving itself as a very useful tool in our everyday lives. Augmented reality is the technology that expands our physical world, adding different-different  layers of digital information onto it. Unlike Virtual Reality (V.R), A.R does not create the whole artificial environments to replace real with a virtual one. A.R appears in direct view of an existing environment and adds sounds, videos, graphics to it.

Brief History

Augmented  realty seems new but  really it is not new term in the world of  technology. We can say a view of the physical real-world environment with superimposed computer-generated images, thus changing the perception of reality, is the A.R. So before we further continue lets see the brief history about it.

All starts at early 1900’s, Where at 1901 Author L.Frank Baum wrote a short story and describes the character maker in the novel “the master key”. In the story , He wrote  “These things are quite improbable, to be sure; but are they impossible?”.  But now we know they are not. Thereafter A cinematographer, Mr. Morton  Heilig creates a world  first VR machine called “SENSORAMA machine”. Thereafter in 1974, Mr. Myron kruger, builds video place an “artificial reality  lab”.Thereafter In 1982, Mr Dan Reitan’s  gives us a very interactive A.R System for weather broadcasting. In 1990, Mr Tom caudal, termed it as Augmented reality. thereafter In 1992, Mr. Louis Rosenberg develops the first fully A.R system called Virtual fixtures after that In 1993 KARMA, a system which used knowledge-based A.R, is introduced by A.R expert, Mr. Steve feiner  and a team of Columbia University students. It was used to provide instructions for repair and maintenance procedures. In 1994, The first A.R theatre production is produced thanks to Mrs. Julie Martin and is called  “Dancing in Cyberspace” thereafter In 1996, CyberCode was created, the first A.R system using 2D markers.  CyberCode would become the model for future marker-based A.R systems after that   Columbia University develops the first outdoor A.R system – The Touring Machine.In1999, Nasa uses A.R for utilising a special A.R dashboard for navigation purposes.In 2000, The ARToolKit, the world’s first open-source software library, thanks to Mr. Hirokazu Kato therafter In 2003, Mr. Wagner and Mr. Schmalstieg present the first handheld A.R system on a ‘personal digital assistant’. This leads the way for A.R on smart devices.

Source:- http://adsreality.com/history-of-augmented-reality-infographic/

As we see it has come a long way since the “The Master Key” and the possibility of what is to come, seems pretty endless. After we read a long history of augmented reality so this obvious that one question will definitely come in our mind  and that is “HOW A.R ACTUALLY WORKS ?”

How A.R actually works ?

The augmented real works under in four phases .

The first part of the A.R system is that captures a part of the environment using a camera on a smartphone, tablet, or head-mounted display or a computer’s webcam.

Second one is scanning in which system scan the piece of environment  to identify a point where to overlay additional information using markers or trackers like infrared, laser, GPS, or sensors.

In the third part, As soon as point is determined the augmented reality request the predefined content (code/function or  any thing ) to overlay further an environmental footprint with additional information.

In the last part, After getting requested content, the system  forms a complete image consisting of the real-world background and superimposed  A.R data.

Regardless of the fact that the augmented reality relates to the expansion of the physical environments with superimposed A.R  information, there is a number of ways to implement this concept. We briefly discuss about the different different  approaches in the types of A.R 

Types  of A.R 

The world of Augmented reality is broad and it continuously expanding. When it comes to the approaches behind A.R, the immersive technology can be based on the following:

We differentiate the A.R in 3 categories, Let’s look closer at each approach which are 

  1. Markers :- Marker-based A.R or image recognition uses a mobile device camera to detect a predefined marker that then triggers a certain computer-generated content. As soon as the marker appear in the camera the software calculates the position of both a marker and displayed content. Therefore, a change of the real-world object position will influence the position of the computer-generated content.
  2. Position :-  Location based an another technique in which position based A.R  system relies on GPS data , Internet , compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope. It is also known as location/position-based augmented reality. Consider an example Imagine walking in a street you’re not familiar with and through your phone’s camera seeing a virtual road sign displaying the street name,  hotels name , restaurants etc this is location based AR.  
  3. Marker less A.R:- The user moves the virtual objects Imagine an A.R application that can place virtual furniture inside your living room. For this application, the user needs to decide where to place the virtual object. This is called “markerless AR”. Sometimes, all we want is to place a virtual video-game character right in front of the user.
  4. Projection based A.R:- Projection based augmented reality works by projecting artificial light onto real world surfaces. Projection based augmented reality allow for human interaction by sending light onto a real world surface and then sensing the human interaction (i.e. touch) of that projected light.

Sources :- https://www.blippar.com/blog/2018/08/14/marker-based-markerless-or-location-based-ar-different-types-of-ar

Augmented reality software

The following is a list of notable augmented reality software including programs for application development, content management, gaming and integrated A.R solution. Well there are numerous kind of softwares available for A.R but I list out few from the site wikipedia as my source.

Open Source 

First A-Frame, A Framework that adds HTML tags for most of the functionality in three.js and other JavaScript features as a superset of this lower level underlying 3-D framework

Second, ApertusVR is an embeddable, open-source (MIT), framework-independent, platform-independent, network-topology-independent, distributed AR / VR / MR engine; written in C++; with JavaScript and HTTP Rest API (in Node.js). It creates a new abstraction layer over the hardware vendors in order to integrate the virtual and augmented reality technologies into any developments, products.

Third, ARToolKit, an open source (LGPLv3) C-library to create augmented reality applications; was ported to many different languages and platforms like Android, Flash or Silverlight; very widely used in augmented reality related projects.

Some Proprietary A.R development toolkits

  • Layer SDK :- was an augmented reality SDK for iOS and Android apps.
  • Vuforia Augmented Reality SDK :-  formerly Qualcomm’s QCAR, is a Software Development Kit for creating augmented reality applications for mobile devices.
  • Wikitude SDK :- an augmented reality SDK for mobile platforms originated from the works on the Wikitude World Browser app by Wikitude GmbH.
  • ARKIT :- an Apple SDK, currently designed exclusively for iOS 11+ app creation. Formerly Metaio, purchased by Apple in 2015.
  • ARCore :-  Google SDK, currently designed exclusively for Android 7.0+ app creation.

You can read more about the list of softwares at wikipedia

Link:- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_augmented_reality_software

List of  A.R companies 

In the below link which shows the  list of Augmented Reality base companies 

Source :-  https://www.realitytechnologies.com/companies/

Conclusion

In the conclusion we see that the augmented reality plays a vital role in different different fields and responsible for changing the way of companies  design, manufacturing  and maintain their products and assets .

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How to Pass Oracle’s Java Certifications  “A Practical Guide for Developers”

Hey Welcome, Today we talk about the Oracle JAVA  certification in depth but before that I would like to introduce myself, I am Manshu Sharma certified in OCAJP 808 and loves coding, digital marketing and recently fell in love in blogging. In here we talk regarding to preparation of OCAJP not OCPJP or OCMJP. Or OCEJP. 

As a note, preparing for OCPJP  or OCMJP is not very different from OCAJP, though you have to use resources that are focused only on OCPJP or OCMJP. You also need to cover more topics and more in-depth because OCPJP 8 or OCMJP 8  or OCEJP  8 is certainly a tough nuts to crack.

Java certification is highly regarded in the IT Industry and provides a Java developer with recognition worldwide. It helps you to find a better job, get a better salary, and even a better raise or bonus at your current job. This article will help you learn the steps to becoming an Oracle Certified Associate (OCA). This is going to be lengthy answer to explain the step-by-step guide for preparing OCAJP exam. I have covered most of the key points for preparing the OCAJP exam. If I have missed any points, please drop a comment. 

So first question come in our mind is …

What is Oracle certified associated java programmer ?

Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmer  (OCAJP) is the entry level programmer certification for Java technology by Oracle. If you are a fresher and java programmer want to take up a basic level certification, then OCAJP is the right exam for you. Also if you want to get the other advanced exams like OCPJP, etc. then you must complete this exam to get the certification.

Second Question comes in our mind is 

How much time do we need for preparation of OCAJP ?

It  is the most commonly asked questions when some one want to prepare OCAJP exam. To be honest with you for obvious reason the preparation time would be vary for every one depends on their Java programming knowledge.

Well according to me if you are fresher and have  a ideal knowledge of Java programming then 2 month will good enough for you assuming that you have dedicated to yourself for the exam. On the other hand if you have experience like 2 or 2+ years of experience than 15  days or less will be enough for you  but those how have not aware about java or complete beginner then 5 to 6 months is required.

Third Question comes in our mind is that 

Which version should I choose to be certified in OCAJP ?

Well, the latest version release by oracle is java SE 13  (September 2109) but right now  oracle does  not provide any certification program in this and  same for java 12 but  provides certification program for OCAJP 11 and that is why I suggest you to go with OCAJP 11 but not because this that ocajp 11 is latest certification program but oracle start providing Long term support (LTP) similar as java 8.

I recently check OCAJP 11 course and appear to be similar to the OCAJP 8 1Z0-808 certification exam. Some of the covered concepts to overlap in both of the examinations. But the 1Z0-815 examination is considerably more detailed and in-depth when compared to the 1Z0-808 examination so obviously its a good idea to start  preparing for java 11 certification.

Forth question comes in our in mind is 

How to prepare for OCAJP 11 certification ?

As we know that java 11 is an extended version of java 8 and have some similar characteristics so I would suggest you to learn java 8 first for which you can go in the below links then go study about java 11.

Links:- https://www.whizlabs.com/ocajp-scja/

Link:- https://www.w3schools.com/java/

And for JAVA 11, you can find new things about java 11 in the below link.

Link:-  https://enthuware.com/resources/new-topics-in-ocajp-11-ocjp-11

To introduce yourself to the concepts covered in the examination, it is suggested that you take the 1Z0-815 Training Course enlisted on the official Certification Website of oracle. The training course walks you through attaining all the necessary skills required to attempt the examination. Also you can choose your preferred training format as Training on Demand or Live Virtual Classes. With Training on Demand, you’ll get 90 days access to the relevant course guides and assessments whereas, with the Virtual Classes, you’ll get five days of virtual classroom experience which are curated by industry experts but to effectively learn about the Java 11-based concepts, theoretical understanding alone will never prove to be enough. Therefore, it is recommended that you practically attempt to implement all the concepts on a physical system to ensure that you’ve attained a respectable grasp over the specified concepts and lastly take practise test again again & again.

Here is the quick information about java 11. The Java SE 11 Programmer OCA 1Z0-815 exam involves a total of 80 multiple choice-based questions within the duration of 3 hours. To pass the examination and gain the certification, the participating candidate needs to score at least 63% of the total marks. This means that out of the 80 questions, a candidate has to answer 51 questions correctly at a minimum. The registration fee for the 1Z0-815 certification exam is Rs.10,475 currently.  You can refer to the table below to have instant insight into the Java SE 11 Programmer 1Z0-815 exam information:

ORACLE JAVA SE11 1Z0-815 EXAM INFO

Exam Title 
Java SE 11 Programmer I
Exam Number
1Z0-815
Associated Certification
Oracle Certified Professional: Java SE 11 Developer
Validated Against
Java 11
Exam Format
Multiple Choice
Number of Questions
80
Exam Duration
3 Hrs
Passing Score
63%
Exam Fee
Rs. 10,475

And here we enlist the syllabus that the examination covers.

Syllabus

  1. Understanding Java Technology and Environment
    1. 1.1.Describing Java Technology and Developer Environment
    2. 1.2.Identifying Main Features of Java Language
  2. Creation of Basic Java Program
    1. 2.1.Creating a functional Java program with the Main Class
    2. 2.2.Compiling and Running a Java Application through the Command Line
    3. 2.3.Creating and Importing Packages
  3. Working with Java String APIs and Primitive Data Types
    1. 3.1.Declaring and Initializing Variables
    2. 3.2.Identifying the Scopes of Variables
    3. 3.3.Using Interference of Local Type Variables
    4. 3.4.Creating and Manipulating Strings
    5. 3.5.Manipulating the data through the StringBuilder Class and Related Methods
  4. Using Java Arrays
    1. 4.1.Declaring, Instantiating, Initializing a 1D Array
    2. 4.2.Declaring, Instantiating, Initializing a 2D Array
  5. Using and Creating Methods
    1. 5.1.Creating Constructors and Methods with Arguments and Returning Values
    2. 5.2.Invoking and Creating Overloaded Methods
    3. 5.3.Applying Static Keyword to other Fields and Methods
  6. Re-Utilizing Implementations Via Inheritance
    1. 6.1.Creating Superclasses and Subclasses
    2. 6.2.Creating And Extending Abstract Classes
    3. 6.3.Enabling Polymorphism by Overriding Methods
    4. 6.4.Using Polymorphism for Casting and Calling Methods
    5. 6.5.Differentiating between Overloading, Hiding, and Overriding
  7. Handling Exceptions
    1. 7.1.Advantages of Exceptions Handling and Differentiating between Checked, Unchecked Exceptions, and Errors
    2. 7.2.Creating Try-Catch Block and Learning How Exceptions Alter Program Flow
    3. 7.3.Creating and Invoking a Method that throws Exceptions
  8. Utilizing Operators and Constructs for Decisions
    1. 8.1.Using Java Operators Including Parenthesis for Overriding Operator Precedence
    2. 8.2.Using Java Control Statements Including if, if/else, and switch
    3. 8.3.Creating do/while, while, for, and for each loop with nested loops inclusion.
  9. Describing Classes and Objects
    1. 9.1.Declaring Java Objects and explaining Objects’ Lifecycle
    2. 9.2.Defining Structure of Java Classes
    3. 9.3.Reading or Writing to Object Fields
  10. Applying Encapsulation
    1. 10.1.Applying Access Modifiers
    2. 10.2.Applying Encapsulation Principles to a Class
  11. Programming Abstractly Through Interfaces
    1. 11.1.Creating and Implementing Interfaces
    2. 11.2.Differing Class Inheritance from Interface Inheritance
    3. 11.3.Declaring and Using ArrayList and List Instances
    4. 11.4.Understanding Lambda Expressions
  12. Understanding Modules
    1. 12.1.Describing Modular JDK
    2. 12.2.Declaring Modules and Enabling Access Between Modules
    3. 12.3.Describing How Modular Projects are Combined
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Protocol buffer

A new way of transferring data

Welcome to the developer blog community. In this blog we are going to discuss one of the revolutionize data transferring technique which is called protocol buffer so lets start the topic.

What is protocol buffer ?

According to google, Protocol buffers are a flexible, efficient, automated mechanism for serializing structured data – think XML, but smaller, faster, and simpler. You define how you want your data to be structured once, then you can use special generated source code to easily write and read your structured data to and from a variety of data streams and using a variety of languages. You can even update your data structure without breaking deployed programs that are compiled against the “old” format.

In other words, Protocol buffer is an technique of developing programs to communicate with each other. The design goals for Protocol Buffers emphasized simplicity and performance. In particular, it was designed to be smaller and faster than XML and JSON.

Supported languages

According to protocol buffer official website proto2 provides a code generator

  • C++
  • JAVA
  • PYTHON
  • C#

Note:- Where third party implementation are also available for JAVASCRIPT

proto3 provides a code generator

  •  C++
  • JAVA
  • PYTHON
  • C#
  • GO
  • RUBY
  • OBJECTIVE -C
  • JAVASCRIPT

Note : – Third party implementation are also available for other languages like C, PHP, PERL, R, RUST, SCALA, SWIFT and JULIA.

Characteristic

The characteristics of protocol buffer and others are mention below

JSON

  • Human readableness
  • Can be parsed without knowing schema in advance
  • Excellent Browser support
  • Less verbose than XML

XML

  • Human readable/editable
  • Can be parsed without knowing schema in advance
  • Standard for SOAP etc
  • Good tooling support (xsd, xslt, sax, dom, etc)
  • Pretty verbose

Protocol buffer

  • Very dense data (small output)
  • Hard to robustly decode without knowing the schema (data format is internally ambiguous, and needs schema to clarify)
  • Very fast processing
  • Not intended for human eyes (dense binary)Above we mention the characteristics of each languages

How do I start ?

It is easy to install and learn and can be use for your own purpose. Below we share a link to briefly understand the installation process for c++ and other languages.

Link:- https://github.com/protocolbuffers/protobuf

Pros and Cons

Well As you can see different-different technologies are prefer a according to their need . As we see, Protobuf is easier to bind to objects; comparing strings in JSON can be slow but JSON is useful when you want data to be human readable. If your server side application is written in JavaScript, JSON makes most sense but JSON is not designed for numbers. As JSON is textual, its integers and floats can be slow to encode and decode where as The integer should be especially fast in Protobuf and it tends to be faster at integer encoding than JSON.For double-decoding, Protobuf has been proven to be significantly faster than JSON for double decoding . JSON is unfit for float numbers).Protocol Buffers offers various advantages to JSON for services that are directly consumed by a web browser.

Source:- https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers

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Why ideation is important before actual implementation ?

Ideation is an important step in project development also it is a creative process of generating new ideas, which can be accomplished through a variety of ideation techniques, such as brainstorming and prototyping. If done right, ideation is what helps founders and executives determine the right problem to solve and how to solve it. It plays a important role in development process.

Ideation also refers the process development and conveying prescriptive ideas to others, typically in a business setting. It describes the sequence of thoughts from the original concept to implementation. Ideations can spring forth from past or present knowledge, external influences, opinions, convictions, or principles. Ideation can be expressed in graphical, written, or verbal terms.

For actual implementation there are several steps that will allow a team to be more effective in Ideation. Like 360 degree inclusion of people ,share problem point , ask participants to give some considerations etc. This help enterprises to come up with the optimal solution of a problem.

Making progress, both as human beings, as well as a society at large, depends on us making improvements and thus ideas.

Economies depend on innovation to drive growth and increase well-being. And every innovation starts from an idea. Without ideas, there is no innovation.

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